Manganese is a trace mineral that plays an important role in numerous biological processes throughout the body. It is nutritionally essential only in small amounts, yet manganese is vital to life. Manganese is available in various foods, nevertheless according to the University of Maryland Medical Center, it is estimated that as many as 37 percent of Americans do not meet the recommended daily intake for this mineral. Low levels of manganese in the body can cause a variety of health complications. Function The human body contains approximately 15 to 20 mg of manganese, which is primarily found in the bones, liver, kidney, pancreas, adrenal and pituitary glands. It helps the body form connective tissue, blood clotting factors and sex hormones. (Reference 1) It is functions as a cofactor to antioxidants and is necessary for the metabolism of carbohydrates, fat, amino acids and cholesterol. It plays a role in calcium absorption, blood sugar regulation, bone health, wound healing and proper brain and nerve function. Adequate Intake Level The Food and Nutrition Board at the Institute of Medicine established an adequate intake level for manganese. These requirements vary by age and gender. Teenage boys ages 14 to 18 need 2.2 mg and teenage girls ages 14 to 18 require 1.6 mg of manganese each day. Men over the age of 19 require 2.3 mg and women older than 19 require 1.8 mg of manganese per day. Pregnant women need 2.0 mg and breast-feeding women need 2.6 mg of manganese daily. Your dietary intake of manganese and supplemental manganese should not exceed 10 mg per day due to the risk of nervous system side effects. Manganese Deficiency Although a number of Americans do not consume an adequate amount of manganese, a true deficiency of this mineral is considered rare. A deficiency typically occurs only if manganese is eliminated from the diet. The most common cause of low manganese levels is a poor dietary intake. Other factors include malabsorption, antacid or oral contraceptive use that interfere with its absorption, excessive sweating because large amounts of manganese is lost in sweating, excess iron, copper or magnesium because they deplete manganese, and chronic liver or gallbladder disorders, which raise intake requirements. Deficiency Symptoms Manganese is involved in many different biochemical processes and can, therefore, adversely affect a number of systems throughout the body. Low levels of manganese in the body can result in impaired glucose tolerance, altered carbohydrate and fat metabolism, skeletal abnormalities, bone demineralization and malformation, stunted growth, decreased serum cholesterol levels, skin rash and elevated blood calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase levels. In addition, manganese deficiencies can result in infertility, seizures, weakness, nausea or vomiting, dizziness, hearing loss, iron-deficiency anemia, weak hair and nails and convulsions, blindness or paralysis in infants. Food Sources Foods rich in manganese include fruits such as pineapple, grapes, kiwi and berries; vegetables like dark leafy greens, beets, sweet potatoes, celery, squash and carrots; nuts and seeds; legumes; soy products like tofu and tempeh; egg yolks; whole grains such as brown rice, oatmeal, raisin bran, quinoa, barley and spelt; herbs and spices like peppermint, cinnamon, cloves and thyme; molasses; syrup and tea. The estimated average dietary manganese intakes range from 2.1 to 2.3 mg per day for men and 1.6 to 1.8 mg per day for women. Foods That Inhibit Manganese Foods that contain phytic acid, such as beans, seeds, nuts, whole grains and soy products, or foods high in oxalic acid, such as cabbage, sweet potatoes, and cabbage, can moderately inhibit manganese absorption. Cooking these foods may help neutralize this effect. While tea is a good source of manganese, the tannins present in tea may slightly reduce its absorption. Additionally, the intake of other minerals, including phosphorus, calcium and iron, has been found to limit the body’s ability to retain manganese. Please visit our supplements page to purchase These Vitamins and more.. www.crossfitroadhouse.com
Because of the low absorption and high excretion rates of chromium, toxicity is not at all common in humans, especially with the usual forms of chromium used for supplementation. The amount of chromium that would cause toxicity is estimated to be much more than the amount commonly supplied in supplements. Chromium deficiency is another story, however, with an estimated 25-50% of the U.S. population being deficient in chromium. The United States has a greater incidence of deficiency than any other country, because of very low soil levels of chromium and the loss of this mineral from refined foods, especially sugar and flours. Even though chromium is needed in such small amounts, it is difficult to obtain. Given these factors, and the fact that the already-low chromium absorption rate decreases even further with age, chromium deficiency is of great concern. Chromium is really considered an “ultra-trace” mineral, since it is needed in such small quantities to perform its essential functions. The blood contains about 20 parts per billion (ppb) – a fraction of a microgram. Even though it is found in such small concentrations, this mineral is important to health. There are about 6mg of chromium stored in the bodies of people who live in the United States; tissue levels of people in other countries are usually higher, and those higher levels tend to be associated with a lower incidence of diabetes and atherosclerosis. There is less hardening of the arteries in people of Asian countries, who it is estimated have five times higher chromium tissue levels than Americans. People of Near Eastern countries who have about four times the average U.S. levels and African people who have twice our chromium levels seem to experience less diabetes than Americans. These higher tissue levels of chromium are due primarily to better soil supplies and a less refined diet. Chromium may be only one of the factors accounting for the differences in rates of diabetes and atherosclerosisbetween cultures, but it is probably a major one. Diagnosing and treating chromium deficiency is simple and should be done as early as possible, as it is much easier to prevent diabetes than to treat it. Incidence; Causes and Development Deficiencies are more common in both the elderly and the young, especially teenagers on poor diets. Tissue levels of chromium tend to decrease with age, which may be a factor in the increase of adult-onset diabetes, a disease whose incidence rose more than sixfold during the second half of the 20th century. This increase may also mirror the loss of chromium from our diets because of soil deficiency and the refinement of foods. Much of the chromium in whole grains and sugarcane is lost in making refined flour (40% loss) and white sugar (93% loss). In addition, there is some evidence that refined flour and sugar deplete even more chromium from the body. Reduced absorption related to aging, diets that are stressful to the digestive system, and the modern refined diet all contribute to chromium deficiency. Higher fat intake also may inhibit chromium absorption. If chromium is as important as we think it is to blood sugar metabolism, its deficiency may be in part responsible, along with the refined and processed diet, for the third leading cause of death (more than 300,000 yearly) in this country, diabetes mellitus, and this figure does not reflect other deaths that may be related to chromium deficiency, since high blood sugar levels seen in diabetes also increase the progression of atherosclerosis andcardiovascular disease, our number one killer. People who eat a diet high in sugar and refined foods are more at risk for not getting enough chromium. Sugar increases chromium loss and refined foods are very low in chromium. Athletes may also have increased chromium loss through exercise. Milk and other high-phosphorus foods tend to bind with chromium in the gut to make chromium phosphates that travel through the intestines and are not absorbed. Signs and Symptoms Even mild deficiencies of chromium can produce symptoms other than problems in blood sugar metabolism, such as anxiety or fatigue. Abnormal cholesterol metabolism and increased progress of atherosclerosis are associated with chromium deficiency, and deficiency may also cause decreased growth in young people and slower healing time after injuries or surgery. Chromium deficiency can resemble diabetes. Treatment and Prevention There is no specific RDA for chromium. Average daily intake may be about 80-100mcg. We probably need a minimum of 1-2mcg going into the blood to maintain tissue levels; since only around 2% of our intake is absorbed, we need at least 100-200mcg in the daily diet. A safe dosage range for chromium supplementation is 200-300mcg. Children need somewhat less. Many vitamin or mineral supplements contain about 100-150mcg of chromium. Some people take up to 1mg (1,000 mcg) per day for short periods without problems; this is not suggested as a long-term regimen but rather to help replenish chromium stores when deficiency is present. All of the precursors to the active form of GTF are used in some formulas, but usually with chromium in lower doses, such as 50mcg, since it is thought to be better absorbed with niacinand the amino acids glycine, cysteine and glutamic acid. To Avoid Deficiency and Maintain a Good Intake of Chromium: · Avoid sugar and sugar products, soda pops, candy, and presweetened breakfast cereals. · Avoid refined, white flour products, such as white breads and crackers. · Use whole wheat products, wheat germ, and/or brewer’s yeast. · Eat whole foods. · Take a general supplement that contains chromium, approximately 100-200mcg daily. · Please visit our supplements page to purchase These Vitamins and more.. www.crossfitroadhouse.com
Folic acid, or folate, is a type of B vitamin. It helps to: · repair DNA · make DNA · produce red blood cells (RBCs) If you don’t have enough folic acid in your diet, you may end up with a folic acid deficiency. Certain foods, like citrus juices and dark green vegetables, are particularly good sources of folate. Not eating enough folic acid can lead to a deficiency in just a few weeks. Deficiency may also occur if you have a disease that prevents your body from absorbing folate. Folic acid deficiency can cause anemia. Anemia is a condition where you have too few RBCs. Anemia can deprive your tissues of oxygen it needs, because red blood cells carry the oxygen. This may affect their function. Folic acid is particularly important in women of childbearing age. A deficiency during pregnancy can lead to birth defects. Most people get enough folic acid from food. Many foods now have additional folic acid added to prevent deficiency. Nevertheless, supplements are recommended for women who may become pregnant. Part 2 of 6: Causes What Causes Folic Acid Deficiency? Folic acid is a water-soluble vitamin. It dissolves in water and is not stored in your fat cells. This means that you need to keep taking folate as your body cannot develop a reserve. People release excess amounts of water-soluble vitamins in their urine. Causes of folic acid deficiency include: Diet A diet low in fresh fruits, vegetables, and fortified cereals is the main cause of folic acid deficiency. In addition, overcooking your food can sometimes destroy the vitamins. Folic acid levels in your body can become low in just a few weeks, if you don’t eat eno Disease Diseases that affect absorption in the gastrointestinal tract can cause folic acid deficiencies. Such diseases include: · Crohn’s disease · celiac disease certain types of cancers people with severe kidney problems that require dialysis Medication Side Effects Certain medications can cause folic acid deficiency. These include: · phenytoin (Dilantin) · trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole · sulfasalazine Excessive Alcohol Intake Alcohol interferes with folic acid absorption. It also increases folate excretion through the urine. Part 3 of 6: Symptoms What Are The Symptoms of Folic Acid Deficiency? Symptoms of folic acid deficiency are often subtle. They include: · fatigue · grey hair · mouth sores · tongue swelling · growth problems Symptoms of anemia caused by folic acid deficiency include: · persistent fatigue · lethargy · pale skin · tender tongue · irritability · diarrhea Part 4 of 6: Diagnosis How Is Folic Acid Deficiency Diagnosed? Folic acid deficiency is diagnosed with a blood test. Pregnant women will often have folate levels tested during a prenatal checkup. Part 5 of 6: Complications What Are The Complications of Folic Acid Deficiency? Folic acid is required for the normal production of RBCs. Complications of a deficiency may include: · megaloblastic anemia, where RBCs are larger than normal and not fully developed · low white blood cells (WBCs) and platelets · serious birth defects in the spinal cord and brain of a developing fetus. These are called neural tube defects. Part 6 of 6: Treatment & Prevention Prevention and Treatment of Folic Acid Deficiency Treatment involves increasing dietary intake of folate. You can also take a folic acid supplement. Folic acid is frequently combined with other B vitamins in supplements. These may be called vitamin B complexes. Alcohol intake should be decreased, and completely eliminated for pregnant women. To prevent folic acid deficiency, eat a proper nutritious diet. Foods that contain high amounts of folate include: · leafy green vegetables, such as broccoli and spinach · brussel sprouts · peas · citrus · fruit such as bananas and melons · tomato juice · eggs · beans and legumes · mushrooms · asparagus · kidney and liver meat · poultry · pork · shellfish · wheat bran · fortified cereals The recommended folate dose is 400 micrograms per day. Women who may become pregnant should take a folate supplement. Folate is critical for normal fetal growth. People who take medications known to cause folic acid deficiency should take a supplement as well, but it is important to check with your doctor first Please visit our supplements page to purchase These Vitamins and more.. www.crossfitroadhouse.com
According to a study published last month in Scientific Reports, participants who consumed a GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) dietary supplement demonstrated an increased ability to modulate action control strategies which are needed to quickly and effectively react to fast-moving stimuli (such as driving a car in rush hour). GABA is a naturally occurring amino acid in the brain and is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS). GABA blocks nerve impulses, slowing down the activity of nerve cells and preventing them from over-firing. GABA also serves as a critical calming agent for the body, helping to combat stress and anxiety. Oral GABA supplementation can act directly on the CNS in a peripheral aspect through the gut. There is definitely a gut-brain relationship between nutrition and the gut microbiome and how they support brain health and function. The gut and brain communicate through the nervous system, immune system, and hormones. In addition, the hypothalamus (emotional neuroendocrine control center of the brain) is outside and not protected by the blood brain barrier, so these two factors can explain how GABA affects the CNS. It is clear in the research that GABA is helpful with anxiety, and there are many case studies which demonstrate its effectiveness. This new study was the first to investigate if GABA had an effect on planning and controlling different actions. Thirty participants took 800 mg of GABA or placebo powder mixed with orange juice. he research team then had them perform a stop-change paradigm, a task that measures how fast people are in inhibiting a response when another action has to be carried out almost simultaneously. As result, the group that consumed the GABA demonstrated enhanced planning performance. These findings provide the first evidence for a possible causal role of the GABA-ergic system in modulating performance in action cascading.